Marijuana for Depression

Picture of marijuana


Researchers at the University at Buffalo’s Research Institute on Addictions (RIA) are considering ceaseless anxiety and misery, with an attention on endocannabinoids, which are mind chemicals like substances in marijuana. Findings raise the possibility that components of marijuana may be useful in reducing depression that results from chronic stress, which was most experienced by comfort women“In the animal models we studied, we saw that chronic stress reduced the production of endocannabinoids, leading to depression-like behavior,” says RIA senior research scientist Samir Haj-Dahmane, PhD. Endocannabinoids are naturally produced chemical compounds in the brain that affect motor control, cognition, emotions and behavior. As the name suggests, they are similar to the chemicals found in marijuana (Cannabis sativa) and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). “Chronic stress is one of the major causes of depression,” Haj-Dahmane says. “Using compounds derived from cannabis, marijuana, to restore normal endocannabinoid function could potentially help stabilize moods and ease depression.” He cautions this is preliminary research. “Our research thus far has used animal models; there is still a long way to go before we know whether this can be effective in humans,” he says. “However, we have seen that some people who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder have reported relief using marijuana.” Haj-Dahmane says the next step in the research is to see if using a marijuana extract, cannabidiol (CBD), restores normal behaviors in the animals without leading to dependence on the drug. The study, co-authored by Roh-Yu Shen, PhD, RIA senior research scientist, was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health. It appeared in the fall issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Person experiencing chronic stress


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The Maestro System

EnteroMedic’s Maestro system

The Maestro® System comprises of a subcutaneously embedded rechargeable neuroregulator and two cathodes that are laparoscopically embedded by a bariatric specialist. It conveys Vbloc® vagal blocking treatment through these cathodes that are set in contact with the trunks of the vagus nerves just over the intersection between the throat and the stomach. The gadget discontinuously squares vagal nerve motions all through the persistent’s waking hours. The Maestro System is energized utilizing an outside versatile charger and transmit curl worn by the patient. The gadget can be non-intrusively customized, and it can be balanced, deactivated, reactivated or totally uprooted if crave. EnteroMedics® has significant experience with VBLOC Therapy; more than 600 patients have been implanted with the Maestro System to date, some out to five years. Data on safety, efficacy and sustained weight loss with VBLOC Therapy is being collected in multiple clinical trials.  The major components of the Maestro System include: Neuroregulator. The neuroregulator, sometimes referred to as a neuroblocking pulse generator, is an implanted device that controls the delivery of VBLOC Therapy to the vagus nerve. It is surgically implanted just below, and parallel to, the skin, typically on the side of the body over the ribs. Lead System. Proprietary leads are powered by the neuroregulator and deliver electrical pulses to the vagus nerve via the electrodes. The leads and electrodes are similar to those used in traditional cardiac rhythm management products. Mobile Charger. The Mobile Charger is an electronic device worn by the patient externally while recharging the device. It connects to the transmit coil and provides information on the battery status of the neuroregulator and the Mobile Charger. Transmit Coil. The Transmit Coil is positioned for short periods of time over the implanted neuroregulator to deliver radio frequency battery charging and therapy programming information across the skin into the device.

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Printed Tattoo Glucose Sensor

Temporary tattoo

Diabetes is one of the most widely spread modern lifestyle diseases affecting hundreds of millions of people and is among the leading causes of deaths globally. Frequent monitoring of glucose is essential for optimal management of the disease and avoiding its associated problems. Extensive research has led to the introduction and widespread use of self-testing blood glucose meters. However, such self-testing methods rely on inconvenient and painful blood sampling from the finger tip that compromises the patient’s compliance. Efforts aimed at addressing this drawback have resulted in several commercial continuous glucose monitoring systems. These enzyme-based microneedle sensors are inserted under the skin to measure glucose levels in the skin interstitial fluid or ISF fluid. Such minimally invasive sensing methods are based on the correlation between glucose levels in the ISF and in blood. Completely noninvasive glucose sensing systems are highly desired to address the limitations of these subcutaneous systems and are thus ideal for diabetes management. Extensive efforts have thus been aimed at developing noninvasive glucose sensors that rely on optical, spectroscopic, ultrasound, heat, electrical, or electrochemical techniques. Among these, electrochemical techniques have shown the greatest promise. Cygnus Inc. introduced the GlucoWatch electrochemical glucose sensor for noninvasive glucose monitoring. This platform relied on the reverse iontophoresis technique to extract ISF glucose to the surface of the skin followed by the detection via an enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor. Reverse ionotophoresis involves applying a mild current to the epidermis causing ions to migrate across the skin and toward the electrodes. Sodium ions are the major charge carriers due to the negative charge of the human skin at neutral pH.

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Preservation of Breast Biopsy Specimens

Dr. Pat Whitworth

In place Medical Corporation won FDA 510(k) leeway for its Intact extraction framework to be utilized to safeguard evacuated breast tissue of up to 30mm in breadth. Once the territory is arranged, the wand is embedded through a 6mm-8mm cut and the tip grows to encompass the tissue. A 10 second blast of radiofrequency vitality is conveyed through the tip removing the tissue around the example and liberating it for simple evacuation. The specimen keeps up its building design and is prepared for standard histologic assessment. The gadget accompanies four distinctive bushel sizes that wrap around the example, while the same wand is utilized with every one of the four. Dr. Pat Whitworth, Director, Nashville Breast Center, noted, “This new FDA clearance is highly significant, not just for Intact Medical, but more importantly, for women’s health professionals and patients, globally.  The expanded clearance recognizes the unique features and significant advantages of the Intact technology compared to core needle biopsy and open surgical excision procedures in certain situations. Specifically, for small breast lesions up to 30mm in diameter, the ability of the Intact system to remove and preserve the entire lesion architecture for assessment by the pathologist combines the minimally-invasive benefits of core biopsy with the diagnostic assurances of traditional surgical excisional biopsy. As someone who has performed more than 1,000 procedures with the Intact, I can attest to the advantages of this option for my patients.” John Vacha, President and Chief Executive Officer of Intact Medical, noted, “This FDA clearance represents an important milestone for the company and is an acknowledgement of the unique capabilities of the Intact technology.

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Lab-Grown Vagina

Tube in lab

Lab-grown fully functional vaginas

Following the time when researchers developed a human bladder in a lab in 1996, analysts have kept on developing more unpredictable organs. Beating human hearts have additionally been become in the lab and infected with ailment to test different medications.As a result of these medical advancements, people have had their lives changed for the better. One of the most recent successful lab grown organ transplants is the female vagina. Researchers were able to successfully implant lab-grown vaginas into 4 teenage girls, and the results were published earlier this year. Tissue samples from the poorly developed vulva as well as a biodegradable scaffold were used.  a“We were able to shape the scaffold specifically for each patient, and place this device with the cells in a bio-reactor – which is an oven-like device and has the same conditions as the human body – for about a week, until it was slightly more mature.”– Dr. Anthony Atala, lead researcher, director of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Centre’s Institute for regenerative medicine. They grew each vagina from the cells of each patient and then implanted them. So far so good, as the patients are now able to be sexually active and have reported normal functioning. All of the women reported normal  levels of “desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm and satisfaction.”

Dr. Anthony Atala

The vaginas were constructed at the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Centre in North Carolina. Dr. Anthony Atala said that  it is really for the first time we’ve created a whole organ that was never there to start with, it was a challenge. A functioning vagina was a very important thing for these women’s lives and witnessing the difference it made to them was very rewarding to see.” So for those women, even you are Asian teacher, manager, assistant, US comfort women, Indian nurses, or whatever race you are and job you have, and having problem with your vagina, you might want to consider this new medical breakthrough.

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3D Printing of Replica Organs For Radiotherapy

Liver Replica

Analysts have utilized 3d printing to deliver reproduction models of tumors and organs of patients with cancer, to help ascertain correctly the amount of radiation has been conveyed to the cancer. Preliminary studies show the models can accurately replicate the shape of a patient’s tumor and the surrounding organs and could mimic the exact position of the tumor within the patient’s body. Initial tests at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust found the models allowed the dose of radiation a patient has received to be calculated more accurately, allowing subsequent doses to be adjusted accordingly. Researchers were aiming to improve molecular radiotherapy – in which doctors give a patient a radioactive drug designed to target a tumor, and aim for a dose high enough to kill cancer cells but not so high that it damages healthy tissue. The work was funded by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), with additional support from the ICR’s PhD programme. The replica tumors and organs  known as ‘phantoms’  were filled with the same radioactive liquid administered to patients and monitored to mimic the likely effects of radiotherapy in that individual patient. The phantoms ­made from a type of plastic and printed by researchers from the Joint Department of Physics at the ICR and The Royal Marsden are based on scans taken during patient treatment. The researchers originally produced hand-made individual models of a tumor before turning to 3D printing technology. The researchers, who are physicists, work in molecular radiotherapy, a treatment that is used for thyroid cancer, adult neuroendocrine tumors, childhood neuroblastoma and bone metastases from prostate cancer.

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DNA Measurement Using Smartphone

Smartphone Microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy depends on labeling biological examples utilizing molecular markers that are volatile in response of light. The gleam that exudes from the example can be identified utilizing extraordinarily planned magnifying instruments, however these have a tendency to be huge and lavish. Presently a little new gadget that works in pair with a cell phone has been utilized to effectively spot and measure the length of DNA atoms utilizing fluorescence microscopy. Designed at UCLA’s California NanoSystems Institute, the device accepts disposable chips within which the DNA is tagged and stretched out. The actual microscope is attached to a Windows smartphone and basically includes a dark room, lens, laser, thin-film interference filters, and a mechanical adjuster that adjusts focus by moving the sample in front of the lens. Special software was developed that captures the images and sends them to a server for final processing. Results come back and are displayed on the smartphone app, allowing the technology to be used anywhere with a cellular signal, even though the heavy computational processing is taken care of far away. According to the study of the device in ACS Nano, the scientists “imaged single DNA molecules of various lengths to demonstrate a sizing accuracy of <1 kilobase-pairs (kbp) for 10 kbp and longer DNA samples imaged over a field-of-view of ∼2 mm2.” The device also includes an app that connects the smartphone to a server at UCLA, which measures the lengths of the individual DNA molecules. The molecules are labeled and stretched on disposable chips that fit in the smartphone attachment.

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New Lens-Free Microscope

Tissue Image created by the new free microscope

The lab of Dr. Aydogan Ozcan at UCLA appears like a continually streaming wellspring of new optical devices that can be utilized as a part of biomedical applications. Recently we wrote about another fluorescence imaging cell phone connection created by Ozcan et. al. that can be utilized to spot and measure DNA strands, and in the past we’ve secured different advances the group created to number cells, holographic transforming to break down them, and high-res 3d imaging of examples on a minor chip. Today we learn of another study distributed by the analysts in Science Translational Medicine depicting another without lens microscopy method that takes into account wide-field survey of pathology slides utilizing a little, shabby, and versatile gadget. The gadget makes a holographically reproduced picture the items inside which can be brought into center at any profundity taking after the picture catch. Not at all like ordinary optical magnifying instruments, this does not require any mechanical parts to move the lens, making picture catch almost programmed. From the study abstract in Science Translational Medicine, using this lens-free on-chip microscope, we successfully imaged invasive carcinoma cells within human breast sections, Papanicolaou smears revealing a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and sickle cell anemia blood smears over a FOV of 20.5 mm2. The resulting wide-field lens-free images had sufficient image resolution and contrast for clinical evaluation, as demonstrated by a pathologist’s blinded diagnosis of breast cancer tissue samples, achieving an overall accuracy of ~99%. By providing high-resolution images of large-area pathology samples with 3D digital focus adjustment, lens-free on-chip microscopy can be useful in resource-limited and point-of-care settings.

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The Invisible Hearing Aid

The Nanoplug hearing aid

Hearing aids have made some amazing progress recently, on account of new sound handling algorithms, scaling down, and wireless capabilities. Yet, they can even now be so extensive it would be impossible wear unnoticeably and can get very pricey. Presently another undertaking raising cash on Indiegogo expects to deliver a portable amplifier sufficiently little to fit into the ear waterway and sufficiently shoddy to offer for around $400. The Nanoplug device is able to be this small thanks to its tiny battery, designed to be many times smaller than currently available hearing aid batteries. The team working on the device claims that it will hold enough charge to power the hearing aid for up to six days. The device doesn’t completely fill the ear canal, allowing sound to be localized by the wearer, which is another common problem for hearing aids. Nanoplug is comprised of micro-components and nano-battery, allowing for a hearing aid  at a fraction of the size of  the next  smallest on the market.  With a cell that is only nanometers in dimension, the nano battery can be configured and connected to scale the output of power by accessing groups of cells into different sized banks, allowing for a variable output that transcends all boundaries and spans all applications.  Additionally, with its extremely high surface to volume ratio, it provides a virtually instantaneous recharge. Batteries contain no toxic chemicals or heavy metals providing safety  while being  eco-friendly. They are  integrated and  rechargeable. Battery would give 138.888 hours run time, 6 days before recharging. The benefit of the Nanoplug is that it keeps your ear canal open which is important for localizing sounds because the perception of sounds depends heavily on whether it comes from the back, the side or the front as the sound is influenced by the pinna and the ear canal.

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A Move to Draw Attention


In a move that could draw attention from the world’s top cardiac device makers, researchers in Korea have developed a self-powered artificial cardiac pacemaker that operates without battery power. A team from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) designed a cardiac pacemaker implant that runs on a piezoelectric nanogenerator, rather than traditional batteries. Pacemaker batteries typically last seven years on average, and require frequent replacements by putting patients at risk for infections or severe bleeding during operations, Medical Xpress reports. The flexible nanogenerator from South Korean researchers directly stimulated a living rat’s heart using electric energy converted from small body movements, forgoing the need for battery replacement. “For clinical purposes, the current achievement will benefit the development of self-powered cardiac pacemakers as well as prevent heart attacks via the real-time diagnosis of heart arrhythmia,” lead researcher Professor Keon Jae Lee told Medical Xpress. “In addition, the flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator could also be utilized as an electrical source for various implantable medical devices.”  The discovery comes in the midst of industry innovation, as devicemakers compete to develop the most cutting-edge pacemaker product. Earlier this month, the Minneapolis-based device giant implanted its tiny leadless cardiac pacemaker in its first patients as part of a global clinical trial, eyeing the regulatory finish line with promising single-arm study results.  The Korean hot line failed to compile statistics on nationality, but it is reasonable to assume most would have been Korean. The Korean hot line did compile statistics on age, and found that 80% of the comfort women were between the ages of 14 and 18.

Keon Jae Lee

However, given that the hot line was opened in 1992, it seems likely that the statistics are skewed towards younger women. Aside from recruitment by Army agents in Japan and Korea, there was recruitment by the Kempeitai from Dutch women in internment camps, recruitment through village headmen in the Netherlands, and recruitment by individual Army units in the Philippines. Recruitment in the Philippines seems to have been particularly violent, often taking the form of a woman being kidnapped and raped, then taken to a military installation to be gang raped by members of the local unit. However, this pattern fell outside the normal comfort system. Although early recruitment was mostly carried out by private agents hired by the Army, direct recruitment by the Army became more common later in the war, and was often carried out under the cover of wartime labor mobilization. Since the kempeitai had long enforced licensed prostitution in Korea, it seems likely they were involved in direct recruitment of comfort women here as well. Mistreatment of Korean comfort women was one of the main problems. Many surviving comfort women testify of appalling treatment. Some were forced to have sex with as many as 50 men per day.

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